Iraq has suffered through three wars in the last 20 years. The attack by the United States in 2003 and the removal of the Iraqi government has led to over five years of intense chaos and violence, ethnic and communal cleansing, and terrible suffering. An estimated two million refugees are in neighboring countries, primarily Syria and Jordan, and more than an additional two million are internally displaced within Iraq. The American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) was involved in Iraq during the sanction period between the 1991 Persian Gulf War and the present war and only pulled out in 2005 when conditions became too dangerous for expatriates to live in Iraq. AFSC has invested deeply in advocacy in the United States against the war and in education about the costs of the war. Because of the massive refugee and internally displaced persons (IDP) problem and the desire to have the advocacy and educational program grounded in work with Iraqis in the Middle East, AFSC appointed this assessment mission to study the situation and to make recommendations about how AFSC could serve the refugees and IDPs.